Most houses around here you'll see a #6 or #4 bare twisted copper wire going from inside the house/basement to the outside to the ground rod. The top of the rod should be a few inches above ground, but they can get covered up over time or if they use mulch for landscaping. If you look at your circuit breaker box, you should see the copper wire coming out of it, if it's not drywalled in. In fact, by code here, there should be another bare copper wire going from the same box to the water pipes, if they are copper. That's why I was surprised to see a well built new house with no ground wires anywhere, and pass inspection.
On occasion I will service a home where the homeowner has re sided the house and covered the GND wire. At thta point I will look around to find the GND rod. It's findable. You just have to look.